Monday, May 25, 2020
The war in the Middle East is an Arab-Israeli conflict with a lot of external parties with their own interests involved. The seed for the war was sown by the British Empire in charge of Palestine in the early twentieth century, when it promised an independent Arab state that included Palestine to the Arabs (Shah). In contradiction the British Foreign Minister also promised the same land to the Israelis through the Ã¢â¬ËBalfour DeclarationÃ¢â¬â¢ and aid for the establishment of Ã¢â¬Ëa Jewish national homeÃ¢â¬â¢ in Palestine (Shah). Since, then the United Nations and the United States of America have fueled the war between these two parties. The involvement of foreign party and their tendency to wage war against any Arab regime, that disagrees being a mere puppet has created a power vacuum increasing instability within the Arab nations. This has increased violence and terrorism in the Middle East, the effects of which is felt throughout the world. The main causes of this war an d why it has not yet been solved can be found by digging deep into the concepts of Ã¢â¬Å"Greater IsraelÃ¢â¬ , direct involvement of external forces and Ã¢â¬Å"petrodollarsÃ¢â¬ . The main concept behind Ã¢â¬Å"Greater IsraelÃ¢â¬ is to expand the territories of Israel and weaken the Arab forces. After the formation of the United Nations, the UN backed by the US proposed the partition of Palestine from which the minority Jewish population received the majority of the best lands (Richman). The majority of Palestinians who are of Arab origin have beenShow MoreRelatedThe War On The Middle East Essay1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages War on ISIS has been been a problem in the world today. We have been going back and forth on rather we should declare war on them for the longest. My personal opinion I think we should because they re never going to stop abusing america and kidnapping our american citizens until we bomb and kill them. Over the years different presidents have had their input on if we should declare war on them or not. For one, former president George W. Bush said yes and everybody thought that was a huge problemRead MoreThe Civil War Of The Middle East2319 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages For the last fifteen years our nation has taken up a major interest in the Middle East. We were attacked due to the civil unrest and the rise of militant groups and more notably, the terrorist group Al-Qaeda. After the events in the Iraq, new conflict has since arisen in Syria. The problem I wish to identify is the ongoing civil war between various parties and the displacement of millions of Syrian citizens across the borders to Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan; as well as the internal displacement ofRead MoreThe Contributions Of The Cold War In The Middle East1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontroversial arms deal. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s in the Imperial period, the Cold War era, or the era of modern proxy conflict, Middle Eastern states have been willing customers of foreign arms. Foreign armament has been justified as an attempt to generate regional stability and facilitate the modernization of Middle Eastern states, but as the case of Saudi Arabia shows, can quickly lead to repressive acts. The first foreign contributions to Middle Eastern military power came with reform attempts during the OttomanRead MoreThe Effect Of The Great War On The Middle East2163 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesevents in the history of the Middle East that would alter the very structure of the region. It continues to negatively impact the countries that were involved due to the decisions made when it was signed and immediately after. The main purpose of the agreement was the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire after it was defeated in World War One . The Middle East region did offer many advantages to the Western powers for economic benefits, trading routes and commerce . The Great War was a major turning pointRead MoreThe War And Its Effects On The Middle East And Europe1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesneighboring countries in Middle East and Europe (BBC News 2016). The civil war has been gone for years and years; however, the devastating war and inhumane government attack on people do not seem to be termina ted. Because of the enlarging scale of the civil war, the global society considered the severity as one of the international affairs, and the United Nations eventually came up with a plan for resolution. Despite the effort of the United Nations on a draft resolution for Syrian war crisis, passing theRead MoreEssay On Civil War In The Middle East1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the past 15 years, died in the Middle East. To reduce the death toll the United States should not involve themselves in the Middle East for three reasons. First, the United States risks the lives of soldiers and civilians in the Middle East. Moreover, the United States can be targeted by terrorists from the Middle East. In addition, the United States do not have very strong relationships in the Middle East. In the first place, most conflicts in the Middle East have caused the United States toRead MoreThe War Of The Middle East With Islamist Extremists1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWar is ugly, no other way to state it, but it is also a necessity. War is an armed conflict between different nations or states (Merriam-Webster). Many say there is always a way around war. Is there really a way? When we look back at World War II, was there any way to avoid it? Do you think that we could have negotiated with Adolf Hitler? The answer is a resounding no. Hitler wanted to exterminate the Jewish race and any other race that weren t what he believed to be perfect (annefrank.org). A moreRead MoreThe World War II And The Middle East1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCentral Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. In the period of European imperialism, imperialism served as conveyer of status and power in world affairs; the more imperialist territory, a more powerful nation state. Arbitrary boundaries and impe rialist expansion into the unknown earth continued until the end of World War II. This disintegration of imperial empires came to be because of the mission of World War II and the weakness of the imperial power post-war. As John Green says, Ã¢â¬Å"In part, theRead MoreThe War Of The Middle East And North Africa2011 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesArab Spring in Tunisia to the most recent round of insurrection in Yemen, vulnerable states in the Middle East and North Africa have undergone waves of debilitating conflict. The chain of events that rapidly spread the revolutionary sentiment from capital to capital was not expected, and surprised the world. Ostensibly bloodless coups intermixed with violent rebellion and created a new Middle East and North Africa. The largest, and arguably most important country embroiled in the rash of regimeRead MoreThe Middle East Is A Country Of Terrorism, Violence, And War1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the minds of people today, the Middle East is a country o f terrorism, violence, and war. What they fail to realize is that there are reasons behind the instability in the region. There have been many factors that have contributed to the unsteadiness of the Middle East today. In addition to the collapse of the Gunpowder Empires, particularly the Ottoman Empire, the countries of the Middle East have also suffered from ongoing religious divisions, wars and revolts in the area, and western intervention
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The Music of Generation X Since the beginning of time the human beings have adored the soothing sounds of music. Music has affected the way people have behaved and dressed throughout different periods of time. Different groups have been formed based upon their preference in music. Take for an example in the music of my generation, Generation X, there are several different groups oriented by music. In Generation X punks, gangs, alternative people, ravers, hippies, and pop rockers have all been labeled into groups by their preference of music. Music has also affected people mentally, causing problems in society like suicide, depression, hate/racism, violence, and drug addiction. I am about to examine five different song lyrics ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The last song was just released last Wednesday. Hope in a Hopeless World, by Widespread Panic is a song that geniunely conveys the problems in today s society. The title itself explains the behaviors of depression and loss of reality. The song looks at the downfalls in our society and how things went wrong. The line, What ever happened to the Golden Rule? says enough to explain my thoughts. The Golden Rule in my opinion is a major norm in our society, and with that out of the way everything is really unfriendly and depressing. Looking for hope in a hopeless world explains that people are trying to come out and have a life, but there are so many drawbacks that they are often stuck. The song also says that you have to keep trying: You ve got to listen to the voice inside Peace and love don t compromise Time is passing by Can t be standing still. Music in Generation X has had more affect on society than any other generation has had. More social groups have been formed and many more feelings have been expressed through our music. Society is overall effected by music and always will be.Show MoreRelated The Music Of Generation X Essay970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Music of Generation X nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Since the beginning of time the human beings have adored the soothing sounds of music. Music has affected the way people have behaved and dressed throughout different periods of time. Different groups have been formed based upon their preference in music. Take for an example in the music of my generation, Generation X, there are several different groups oriented by music. In Generation X punks, gangs, alternative people, ravers, hippies,Read MoreAnalysis Of Michael Jackson s The Rock Band Nirvana s Sophomore Album1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn 1992, Michael JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Dangerous fell from the number one spot on the Billboard music charts, replaced by grunge rock band NirvanaÃ¢â¬â¢s sophomore album, Nevermind, bringing alternative rock to mainstream and commercial success. Nirvana had started out in SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s underground music scene and consisted of lead singer and songwriter Kurt Cobain, bassist Krist Novoselic and drummer Dave Grohl. Their sound was a subgenre of alternative rock known as grunge, a combination of punk rock and heavy metalRead MoreEssay Generation X1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGeneration X When seeking information on differences, good and bad, between the Baby Boomers and Generation X, what better experts than my parents. After all they have done the 50s thru the 90s. They have seen the different trends and Im sure attempted to set a few of their own. As the conversation went on about the differences and similarities, we all became passionate about certain aspects of growing up. It started with the clothes, and then television and it got intense when we got toRead MoreThe Success Life of Business Owner and Entrepreneur, Simon Cowell518 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmany great production companies; one of his best though is SyCo which he owns fifty-fifty with Sony Music Entertainment and was founded in 2002. SyCo employs a number of great people such as; Global CEO Charles Garland (day-to-day operations), Sir Philip Green (advisor), and Karren Brady (advisor). In 2010, Ellis Watson CEO of SyCo Entertainment, resigned. SyCoÃ¢â¬â¢s main productions are Got Talent and The X Factor which generally operates in the U.S. and U.K. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Got Talent, since launching in 2006Read MoreEssay on Gen X1156 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfirst generation symbolizing the decline of the nation? Generations are labeled all the time by historians, novelists and journalist in an attempt to capture the spirit or essence of an era. But the term Generation X carries all the negativity of propaganda and stereotype. The term Generation X has become a derisive media batchphrase, a snide put-down for those 80 million people who, like me, were born between 1961 and 1981. They are the children of the baby boomers and the 13th generation sinceRead MoreLeadership and Communication: How Each Generation Communicates906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand Communication A leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s age and generation plays a significant role in the way they communicate. When different generations come together they bring with them their own worldviews and expectations. An effective leader is able to step out of their generational preferences and customize the way they communicate to the other generations. By effectively addressing and taking advantage of those unique generational differences they can bridge the generations together to create a collaborative, innovativeRead MoreMy Cultural Identity Essay1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescould be anything like an interest in technology or what hobbies you like even food. My cultural identity would not exist if it wasn t for what I value the most and what I love the most. In the world, nowadays people like a lot of things such as music. But what I like is completely different, There is one that influences my cultural identity and that is my electronic devices, I say this because, from the start, I didn t know much about computers I only thought you just go on the internet and playRead MoreThe Generation Of The Boomer Generation1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesToday, three generations work side by side in American businesses, each with their own differing values. Managers need to recognize their unique characteristics and plan accordingly. The term Generation Gap entered our daily lexicon in the 1960s when members of the Boomer generation were teenagers. It recognized the chasm that existed between the Boomers and their parents in regard to their divergent political views, taste in music, the clothes they wore, and professional goals: Baby BoomersRead MoreMusic in Generations Essay1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAll music has changed tremendously throughout the years. Each generation has several specific songs that defines that generation. Every song has different lyrics that describe the emotions that the artists are feeling. The songs connect to each individual in many different ways. Lyrics to a song is what makes music wonderful. Each song touches someone through ways like teaching a life lesson or touching your heart. Every generation has music that impacts the world by motivating people to doRead MoreBefore Sunrise and Before Sunset1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe films Before Sunrise and Before Sunset are said to represent the so-called slacker genre. Slackers are individuals in society who have no direction and no reasonable expectation or realistic goals in life. This term is mainly used with Generation XÃ¢â¬â¢ers (people born between 1961 and 1981) (Casto, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s A Slacker Movie?Ã¢â¬ ). Slacker movies are films that deal with the ordinary day-to-day life of these people. In Before Sunrise and Before Sunset the characters sense of wandering and the feel of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction The purpose of this report is to analyse and evaluate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s development in four main competence areas: managing self, managing others, managing career, and managing knowledge. For each area, a specific skill will be taken into consideration and analysed, supported by three different pieces of evidence each. Furthermore, the importance of every skill will be evaluated with regards to the hospitality industry, and a personal reflection will be made to determine how much of a development I have undergone throughout this academic year. Managing Career: Employability The Skills for Business Network (2003, cited in Gravells, A., 2010) defines Employability as the knowledge, skills and attributes that are needed in order to look for, obtain and maintain employment at any level. However, Tamkin and Hillage (1999) suggest these skills alone are not enough: they need to be combined with the knowledge of how to market and sell oneself and the skills they possess. According to Van der Heijde and Van der Heijden (2006), employability is the continuous fulfilling, acquiring or creating work through the use of specific competences such as knowledge, abilities, and skills. It depends on a continuous learning process that enables people to develop skills throughout their experiences (Scholarios et al., 2008), which they will use constructively to progress in their career and enhance their employability. Furthermore, according to Harvey and Morey (2002), employabilityShow MoreRelatedAssignment 2578 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesregarding understanding or managing diversity in which I am most strong are: The two areas that I am the strongest in are reducing my prejudices because part of managing diversity is being able to admit to my own biases and I am an individual who takes constrictive criticism which by the way I had to reconsider my thoughts when it came to stereotyping because I judge a lot of individuals before getting to know them and what they could bring to the table which in managing obviously is a bad thing IRead MoreStrengths And Weaknesses Of A Career Essay827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesis the art of managing ourselves properly. A person can perform only from strengths because only when you operate from your strengths you can hope to reach true excellence. This has been proved by great historians like Napoleon, da Vinci and Mozart have always learnt to manage themselves. We basica lly have to learn to develop and place ourselves at a position where we can make the greatest contribution. Peter Drucker in his book talks about how to have an engaged and productive career that may spanRead MoreCase Study : Supply Chain Management839 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmills, I really had to struggle against managing supply chain as it was very difficult for me without proper knowledge of Supply chain management in dealing with purchasing of raw material from suppliers and giving product to clients. I could not understand what clients were demanding and how to fulfill their demands. First of all a big thanks to CQ University providing its students to get knowledge on all important topics which are helpful in their future career and I am one of them. Read MoreHrm Interventions1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople who work in the organization. HRM focuses on issues related to people like (1) conducting job analyses, (2) planning personnel needs, and recruitment, (3) selecting the right people for the job, (4) orienting and training, (5) determining and managing wages and salaries, (6) providing benefits and incentives, (7) appraising performance, (8) resolving disputes, (9) communicating with all employees at all levels. It is also an important and comprehensive approach to manage employees in the workplaceRead MoreChanging from Legal Practice to Healthcare Administration1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChanging from Legal Practice to Healthcare Administration A personal change I experienced that was very challenging emotionally and psychologically was a career change from legal practice to healthcare administration. The decision for a career change happened in 2007 after a near death experience in Cameroon, my home country, during a short vacation. During my vacation, a health scare got me to a local area hospital that had only one attending physician and 20 nurses to take care of approximatelyRead MoreProfessional Marketing Career Essay1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdiverse experiences have helped to shape my professional marketing career. These positions range from promoting Broadway shows, to marketing at the global childrens entertainment brand PokÃ ©mon, and managing a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s brand called My Princess Academy. While my professional experiences have provided me with a strong real world foundation, I feel that in order to pursue my goal of managing a major entertainment brand, I require the knowledge and training afforded by an MBA program. I am confident that myRead MoreMy Career As A Customer Service Specialist At Ups954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMy peers, friends and supervisors describe me as a pleasant, smart and intelligent woman. One of the most important qualities that I possess is the diversity of experience. I started my career as a Customer service specialist at UPS in Dubai, U.A.E , climbing up the ranks to a Freight Services Supervisor within one year. My strong leadership skills, Ã¢â¬ ¦...out of the box thinking helped me achieve Ã¢â¬ ¦. As a Supervisor, I improved the performance of the staff working under me which required team workRead MoreWhy Is Majoring Is Accounting At The University Of Texas At San Antonio1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesher lives and trying to escape from the zombies, chaos is expected. Therefore, with someone who is majoring in accounting will be beneficial to the community. As an accounting major, one will have knowledge on how to take inventory on supplies needed, help with distribution of goods and assist with managing the supplies. Students can pursue a degree in accounting at The University of Texas At San Antonio. The College of Business has certain requirement, for instance, students is require to have 21 creditRead MoreObtaining A Doctoral Degree For Business Administration992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa second career as a teacher, not only in an academic setting but also in other areas of my life, especially in the workplace as a mentor, and in helping to guide and teach others. I believe a doctoral degree in business will not only help me in cognitive reasoning and thinking, but will also enable me gain better focus in the area of management. This focus can help me work more effectively with others within my organization to manage our processes better. By increasing my knowledge with a DoctorateRead MoreJob Specification Ttc Principal625 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesJOB SPECIFICATION Principal TTC Hunar Foundation Multan Source Ã¢â¬â page 6 Careers Ã¢â¬â DAWN Newspaper 01 May 2016 Assignment 3 Instructor Ms. Zil e Huma HRM Course Summer 2016 Form HRIF 02A Job Specification Ã¢â¬â TTC School Principal Reporting to Secretary School Board of Management Hunar Foundation Responsible for 6 staff of Supervisor grade Special requirements: Not to be overweight or suffer from any handicaps / diseases COMPETENCIES ESSENTIAL Age over 40 Med Cat A DESIRABLE
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre. Answer: Introduction Ovarian cancer is the formation of tumour in the ovary. Ovarian cancer can migrate from the ovaries to the other reproductive organs and affect its functioning. Ovaries secrete reproductive hormones in the female. These hormones are important for the reproductive and sexual development in female. (Salani, R and Bristow, R., 2010). The menstrual cycle is under control of these hormones. Every month the oocyte (egg) released by the ovary which on fertilization produce zygote is also under the supervision of these hormones. Maintenance of pregnancy and the production of the milk after the birth of baby are controlled by these hormones. This disease is not detectable in its early phase. Formation of neoplasm clusters occurs in the ovary. (Ozols, R. F., 2003). Formation of the tumours could be in the epithelial layers, germ cells or the stroma of the ovary. Ovarian cancer is known as the silent killer among women due to lack of information about the disease and the late detection of the disease. (Roth, D. S., 2003). Ovarian cancer is regarded as the most dangerous and lethal gynaecologic cancer in women by the Gynaecologic cancer foundation society of Gynaecologic Oncologists in 2010. (Jayde et al, 2012). To know about ovarian cancer it is important to understand what cancer is and what the female reproductive system is. Cancer is the result of uncontrolled and abnormal cell division that causes severe effect on the human body. This uncontrolled growth can sometime be lethal. Cancer could be due to many reasons including both acquired or due to genetic mutation, hormonal imbalance or immune responses. The cancer which is acquired is generally the result of smoking, alcohol, bad life style and poor dietary intake or due to viral infections. Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Tobacco intake accounts for the 70% death due to lung cancer. Every year millions of people die due to cancer. (World Health Organization, 2015). Female reproductive system Female reproductive system comprises of the ovaries, fallopian tube and the uterus. Ovaries are paired structure situated on both side of the uterus. They are held in suspended form by the ligament mesovarium. Ovaries secrete hormones; it is both exocrine and endocrine in nature. The sex hormones are poured into the blood by the ovary which is the function of an endocrine gland. It releases the ova every month which are an exocrine function. The epithelium of the ovary consists of cuboidal cells. Ovary comprises of the cortex which is the outer section and the medulla which form the inner section. The ovarian follicles are present in scattered form in the cortex. (Krause, W. J., 2005). The size of the ovarian follicle is different depending upon the developmental stage. The matrix comprises of mainly connective tissues, blood vessels and fibrous tissues. The size of the ovary in normal ovulating female is 3cm2cm1cm in dimension. (Palastanga, N and Soames, R. 2011). The primary function of the ovary is Oogenesis i.e. formation of the gamete in female which on fusion with the male gamete forms a zygote. The ova undergo development forming all the follicular stages in the ovary. The other function of the ovary is to synthesize and release Estrogen and Progestrone hormone. (Thibodeau, G. A. and Patton, K. T., 2013). As per the growth of the female the formation of viable ova decreases and finally stops at the menopause. Background Ovarian cancer is mostly observed in women above 40 years of age. It is mostly diagnosed in the advanced stages. Early symptoms are can be confusing as it can be because of other diseases also. Women generally ignore such symptoms unless it becomes really painful. The high rate of multiplication of the abnormal cells in the ovary leads to the formation of tumour in the ovary. If the tumour is malignant, it can spread in other organs of the body and can be lethal in severe cases. If the tumour is benign, it does not move to the other body parts and is not fatal. The ovarian cancer is mainly diagnosed in the three region of the ovary in the epithelial cells, stroma or the germ cells. (Australian institute of health and welfare and the national breast and ovarian cancer centre, 2010). WHO and the International federation of gynaecology and obstetrics classified ovarian cancer into 30 types on the basis of the cells where they are formed. (Yarbo et al, 2016). To find out and analyse -The occurrence, number of affected women and the mortality rate related to ovarian cancer -The various risk factors associated with the disease -The diagnosis and prevention. The occurrence, number of affected women and the mortality rate- out of all the cancers affecting women all across the world, ovarian cancer comes on number seven. In case of the mortality due to cancer in women, it is eighth in position. The studies conducted in U.S.A. reports that ovarian cancer accounts for the major gynaecologic malignancy related mortality. Around 23000 women are reported with ovarian cancer and around 14000 deaths are recorded due to this disease every year in U.S.A. (Epstein, C. J. and Childs, B., 1975) (Peters, J. A., 1997). While in Australia, as per the data from 2006, ovarian cancer was identified as the ninth most commonly observed cancer in women. It was second most commonly found gynaecological cancer and about 1226 women were reported to be suffering from this disease. In terms of mortality rate in women of Australia it is on the sixth position and is the leading reason for death due to gynaecological cancer. (AIHW, 2010). Across the world around 23900 0 women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the year 2012. (Ferlay, J et al., 2013). Approximately 800 women mortality was estimated in the year 2006 in Australia. There was a decline in terms of the deaths due ovarian cancer as per the age groups of 26 % from 1982 to 2006. The Australian institute of health and welfare presented an overview statistical data for ovarian cancer in Australia. The analysis was based on approximate calculations of the various cases out of 100,000 women. The number of cases reported in 2016 of women suffering with ovarian cancer was around 1480. The mortality in case of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer was near about 1040. The age related diagnosis of the disease was around 10.4 out of 100,000 women. (Cancer Australia, 2016). The age related study conducted shows that the ovarian cancer risk increases with the growing age. Epithelial cancer is reported the higher aged women. According to the finding in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-It is reported maximum in the women who are around 75 to 80 years old. It is not much observed in the women below 40 years. It reported more in the women from western countries like North America and Europe and is less frequent in the African and Asian women. (Matloff, E. T, 1999). The age related diagnosis shows fluctuation from the past record considering different age groups. The estimation by AIHW suggests that the disease can affect women more in case of women between 65- 70 years of age. The occurrence rate in women between 70- 74 will be low and will be more in women above 80. The trends recorded from 1982 to 2006 were as following for the different age groups out of 100,000 women. For the women below 50 years of age there was a decline in the disease diagnosis from 3.9 to 3.1 cases. Women falling in age group 50-69 the disease diagnosis reduced to 24.6 from 32.7 cases whereas for women above 70 years a slight increase in the number of cases was recorded from 35.8 to 40.9. Risk factors associated with ovarian cancer- risk related to ovarian cancer include genetic, hormonal and the environmental factors. The chances of acquiring the disease are high due to the following factors. Family history- heredity accounts as one of the strongest reasons for acquiring ovarian cancer. Women who have a history of their blood relative acquiring ovarian cancer or breast cancer are more prone to acquire this disease. Even if there is no sign of genetic mutation in these women, the chances are around 5% to get ovarian cancer. Genetic factors- the main reason for the disease is the mutation in the gene BRCA1 or BRCA2. This mutation if inherited can lead to the formation of tumour in the ovary. The BRCA genes are the breast cancer tumour suppressor gene so the possibility of acquiring ovarian cancer increases if a woman has encountered earlier in life. This gene mutation is common in women from eastern European countries. The mutations or the excess expression of the gene cause the inheritance of the disease. The mutation in BRCA1 in a woman can lead to 85% risk of breast cancer and 60% risk of ovarian cancer whereas the mutation in BRCA2 gene has lower risk of cancer in a woman. (National breast and ovarian cancer centre, 2010). Lynch syndrome or HNPCC patient also are at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. In case also heredity has a major role for causing ovarian cancer. (Management of women at high risk of ovarian cancer, 2010). Ageing factor- women with increasing age have more possibility of acquiring ovarian cancer. Age and family history of this cancer are regarded as important risk factor. (ACN and NBCC, 2004). Women in the age group 65- 70 are more prone to develop ovarian cancer. Age at menopause is also a factor to cause ovarian cancer. It is been reported by some scientists that if the age at menopause is more the chances are high to get ovarian cancer. (Hildreth et al, 1981). Pregnancy and nulliparity- infertility and nulliparity pose a greater risk in women towards acquiring ovarian cancer. The studies conducted have shown that more number of abortion or incomplete pregnancy also decrease the chances of getting ovarian cancer. The unprotected sexual intercourse also can be a risk factor in case of both gravid women and those who are infertile and have unprotected intercourse. (Booth, M., Beral, V. and Smith, P., 1989). Drugs for fertility are also responsible to increase the risk. Medically induced ovulation techniques and the drugs to induce fertility have a risk of developing epithelial cancer although this has not been of much significance. (Bristow, R. E. And Karlan, B. Y., 1996). Body mass index- body mass index also establishes a relationship with the risk of developing ovarian cancer. The high body mass index leads to higher risk of acquiring ovarian cancer. (Purdie, D. M. et al, 2001). Lifestyle and nutritional factors- tobacco smoking, obesity all pose a threat to acquire ovarian cancer in women. Obesity in women suffering with ovarian cancer has high death rate. (Yarbo, C. H. and Wujcik, D., 2010). Low physical activity in the puberty can increase the chance of menarche and can be a risk to ovarian cancer.Other factors- ovulation also is a factor that can be responsible to cause ovarian cancer. If the ovulation duration is more the chances to acquire the disease is more. Over secretions of gonadotropins and androgens can also be a risk factor. Hormone replacement therapy is also responsible to cause tumours in the ovary. Women using talcum powder in the genital area are also prone to cancer. (Daly, M. and Obrams, G. I., 1998). The diagnostic and prevention method- the preventive method for the disease include- a healthy life style with low fat intake and regular exercise. Pregnancy on the right time i.e. below 35 years of age and for more number of times can be effective to suppress the occurrence of the disease. Breast feeding also provide a little protection. Use of oral contraceptive pills have been reported to reduce the chance of ovarian cancer. About 50 % lower risk was observed in women who use the pill for 5 years. Hysterectomy also suppresses the development of epithelial ovarian cancer in women. (Riman, T., Persson I. Nilsson, S., 1998). The mortality rate in this disease is mainly of the late diagnosis. There are no effective screening methods to diagnose the case in women. The diagnostic method involves a Pap test of the cervix and the ultrasound and Ct scans of the abdomen. Blood test is done to observe the level of tumour marker 125 (CA125). (Ozols, R. F., 2003). The common symptoms associated with ovarian cancer include abdominal pain, bloating, urinary symptoms, lack of appetite, fatigue, indigestion. The frequency of the symptoms determines the severity of the disease. Initially women do not notice the symptoms and often confuse it with some other diseases. In order to proceed for the surgical method it is important to diagnose the stages to identify the extent of the spread of cancer. The disease is limited to the ovaries in the initial stage I. In the stage II may spread in both ovaries and can spread to other organs of the reproductive system. Stage III is reported with the spread of cancer in the pelvic and abdominal region or nearby lymph nodes. Stage IV is the severe with the cancer spreading in the other parts of the body like lungs. Surgic al method, chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc are applies to control the disease in severe cases. (Cancer Australia, 2016). Treatment methods After the stage determination the surgical method are implied. In early stages a laparotomy is usually performed where small cuts are made in the abdomen and the surgery is performed. In many cases along with the surgery, chemotherapy is required as the tumour enters in the advance stages. (Salani, R. and Bristow, R., 2010). Total abdominal Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo- oophorectomy is done to where both the ovaries and the fallopian tube are removed, along with the uterus and the cervix in severe cases. X rays are used to stop the growth of cancer cells in radiotherapy. It helps to suppress the symptom or in case it appears after the surgery. Many other techniques like target therapy, hormone therapy are used. (Nordqvist, C., 2016). Conclusion The studies conducted shows that the risk, occurrence and the diagnostic method related to the ovarian cancer. It is important to make awareness programmes to prevent the disease in women. Australia has a significant number of women who die every year due to ovarian cancer. To decrease the rate it important to introduce awareness programmes and should have screening to detect the disease. The factors associated are also taken into consideration. References Australian cancer network and national breast cancer centre. (2004). Clinical practise guidelines for the management of women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Sydney: NBCC. Australian government. (2016). Ovarian cancer. Cancer Australia. Retrieved on 29 Sep 2016 from https://ovarian-cancer.canceraustralia.gov.au/statistics Australian institute of health and welfare and the national breast and ovarian cancer centre. (2010). ovarian cancer in Australia: an overview. Cancer series no. 52. Cat no. CAN 48. Canberra: AIHW. Australian institute of health and welfare. (2014). Cancer in Australia: an overview, 2014. Cancer series no. 90. Cat. No. CAN 88. Booth, M., Beral, V. and Smith, P. (1989). Risk factors for ovarian cancer:a case- control study. Br. J. cancer. 60;592-598. UK: the macmillan press ltd. Bristow, R. E. and Karlan, B. Y. (1996). Ovulation induction, infertility and ovarian cancer. Fertile steril. 66: 499- 507. Cancer. (2015). World health organization. Available on 28 sep 2016 from https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/ Daly, M. and Obrams, G. I. (1998). Epidemiology and risk assessment for ovarian cancer. Semin oncol. 25:255-264. Epstein, C. J. and Childs, B. (1975). Genetic counseling. Am J Hum Genet; 27:240-2 Ferlay, J et al. (2013). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0. cancer incidence and mortality worldwide:IARC cancerbase no. 11. Available on 29 Sep 2016 from https://globocan.iarc.fr. Jayde, V et al. (2012). The diagnostic journey of ovarian cancer: a review of the literature and suggestions for practise. Contemporary nurse. Vol 41, issue 1. 5-17. Australia: eContent management pty ltd. Krause, W. J. (2005). Ovaries. Krauses Essential Human Histology for Medical students.3rd edition. U.S. A.: universal publishers. Management of women at high risk of ovarian cancer: a systemic review. (2010). Australia: national breast and ovarian cancer centre (NBOCC). Matloff, E. T. (1999). Complex decision-making for BRCAI/2 carriers. Cancer J Sci Am. 5:266-8. National breast and ovarian cancer centre. (2010). Advice about families aspects of breast cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer. A guide for health professionals. Surry hills: national breast and ovarian cancer centre. Nordqvist, C. (2016). Ovarian cancer: causes, symptoms, and treatments. MNT. Available on 29 September 2016 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159675.php Ozols, R. (2003). Pathology. Ovarian Cancer. Vol. 1. U.S. A.: PMPH_USA Palastanga, N and Soames, R. (2011). Urognital system. Anatomy and human movement, structure and function with PAGEBURST Access: anatomy and human movement. U.S.A: Elsevier health sciences. Peters, J. A. (1997). Applications of genetic technologies to cancer screening, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Semin oncol nurs. 13:74-81. Purdie, D. M. (2001). Body size and ovarian cancer: control study and systematic review ( Australia). Cancer causes and control. Vol 12. Issue 9, 855- 863. Doi: 10.1023/A:1012267619561. Riman, T. Persson, I. and Nilsson. S. (1998). Hormonal aspect of epithelia ovarian cancer:review of epidemiologic evidence. Clin endocrinal (Oxf); 49:695-707. Roth, D. S. (2003). An ovarian cancer companion. National ovarian cancer association. Canada: General Store Publishing House. Salani, R and Bristow, R. (2010). Ive been diagnosed with ovarian cancer. John Hopkins patients Guide to Ovarian Cancer. U.S.A.: Jones Barlett learning. Thibdeau, G. A and Patton, K. T. (2013). The reproductive system. Structure function of the body. Ed 14th. U.S.A.: Elsevier mosby. Yarbo et al. (2016). Ovarian cancer. Cancer nursing: principles and practice. 8th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones Barlett publisher.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
A Summary of South African Apartheid Though youve likely heard about South African apartheid doesnt mean you knowÃ its full history or how the system of racial segregation actually worked. Read on to improve your understanding and see how it overlappedÃ with Jim Crow in the United States. A QuestÃ For Resources The European presence in South AfricaÃ dates back to the 17th century when the Dutch East India Company established the Cape Colony outpost. Over the next three centuries, Europeans, primarily of British and Dutch origin, would expand their presence in South Africa to pursue the landÃ¢â¬â¢s abundance of natural resources such as diamonds and gold. In 1910, whites founded the Union of South Africa, an independent arm of the British Empire that gave the white minority control of the country and disenfranchised blacks. Although South Africa was majority black, the white minority passed a series of land acts that resulted in them occupying 80 to 90 percent of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s land. The 1913 Land Act unofficially launched apartheid by requiring the black population to live on reserves. Afrikaner Rule Apartheid officially became a way of life in South Africa in 1948, whenÃ the Afrikaner National Party came into power after heavily promoting the racially stratified system. In Afrikaans, apartheid means Ã¢â¬Å"apartnessÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"separateness.Ã¢â¬ Ã More than 300 laws led to apartheidÃ¢â¬â¢s establishment in South Africa. Under apartheid, South Africans were categorized into four racial groups: Bantu (South African natives), colored (mixed-race), white and Asian (immigrants from the Indian sub-continent.) All South Africans over the age of 16 were required to carry racial identification cards. Members of the same family often were categorized as different racial groups under the apartheid system. Apartheid not only banned interracial marriage but also sexual relations between members of different racial groups, just as miscegenation was banned in the United States. During apartheid, blacks were required to carry passbooks at all times to allow them entry into public spaces reserved for whites. This occurred after the enactment of the Group Areas Act in 1950. During the Sharpeville MassacreÃ a decade later, nearly 70 blacks were killed and nearly 190 wounded when police opened fire on them for refusing to carry their passbooks. After the massacre, leaders of the African National Congress, which represented the interests of black South Africans, adopted violence as a political strategy. Still, the military arm of the group did not seek to kill, preferring to use violent sabotage as a political weapon. ANC leader Nelson Mandela explained this during the famous 1964 speech he gave after being jailed for two years for inciting a strike. Separate and Unequal Apartheid limited the education the Bantu received. Because apartheid laws reserved skilled jobs for whites exclusively, blacks were trained in schools to perform manual and agricultural labor but not for skilled trades. Fewer than 30 percent of black South Africans had received any kind of formal education whatsoever by 1939. Despite being natives of South Africa, blacks in the country were relegated to 10 Bantu homelands after the passage of the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959. Divide and conquer appeared to be the purpose of the law. By splitting up the black population, the Bantu could not form a single political unit in South Africa and wrest control from the white minority. The land blacks lived on was sold to whites at low costs. From 1961 to 1994, more than 3.5 million people were forcibly removed from their homes and deposited in the Bantustans, where they were plunged into poverty and hopelessness. Mass Violence The South African government made international headlines when authorities killed hundreds of black students peacefully protesting apartheid in 1976. The slaughtering of the students came to be known as the Soweto Youth Uprising. Police killed anti-apartheid activist Stephen Biko in his jail cell in September 1977. BikoÃ¢â¬â¢s story was chronicled in the 1987 film Ã¢â¬Å"Cry Freedom,Ã¢â¬ starring Kevin Kline and Denzel Washington. Apartheid Comes to a Halt The South African economy took a significant hit in 1986 when the United States and Great Britain imposed sanctions on the country because of its practice of apartheid. Three years later F.W. de Klerk became president of South Africa and dismantled many of the laws that allowed apartheid to become the way of life in the country. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison after serving 27 years of a life sentence. The following year South African dignitaries repealed the remaining apartheid laws and worked to establish a multiracial government. De Klerk and Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for their efforts to unify South Africa. That same year, South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s black majority won rule of the country for the first time. In 1994, Mandela became South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s first black president. Sources HuffingtonPost.com:Ã Apartheid History Timeline: On Nelson MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s Death, A Look Back At South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s Legacy Of Racism Postcolonial Studies at Emory University History.com: Apartheid - Facts and History
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Edgar Allan Poe is acknowledged today as one of the most brilliant and original writers in American literature. His skillfully wrought tales and poems convey with passionate intensity the mysterious, dreamlike, and often macabre forces that pervaded his sensibility. He is also considered the father of the modern detective story. The Tell Tale Heart is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator remains nameless and sexless in the story. H/she takes care of an old man with whom the relationship is unclear. At the beginning of the story, the narrator says that he loved the old man but he hates his eye and h/she believes that the eye is evil. H/she confesses that the one and only reason for killing the old man is his eye: Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees Ã¢â¬â I made up my mind to take the life of the old manÃ¢â¬ . The narrator begins the story by trying to convince the reader that h/she is not insane. The fact that the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s eye is the only motivation to murder proves the narrator is mentally unstable. For seven nights precisely at midnight, the narrator enters the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s room to observe the eye. On the eighth night the narrator enters the room and the old man sat suddenly in his bed, crying out Ã¢â¬Å"whoÃ¢â¬â¢s there?Ã¢â¬ the narrator stood still for over an hour, as did the old man who did not lie back down. Then h/she opened the lantern slightly and the ray was on the eye only. This made the narrator go furious and he moved to the old man who shrieked once, he/she dragged him off his bed and killed him. The old manÃ¢â¬â¢s body was chopped and buried under the planks of the floor. The police came because of a shriek reported by a neighbor. H/she invited them and they sat chatting, after a while the narrator started hearing the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s heart beating from under the flooring. The heart beat grew louder and louder, finally h/she confesses of killing the old man. At the beginning of the story t... Free Essays on The Tell Tale Heart Free Essays on The Tell Tale Heart Edgar Allan Poe is acknowledged today as one of the most brilliant and original writers in American literature. His skillfully wrought tales and poems convey with passionate intensity the mysterious, dreamlike, and often macabre forces that pervaded his sensibility. He is also considered the father of the modern detective story. The Tell Tale Heart is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator remains nameless and sexless in the story. H/she takes care of an old man with whom the relationship is unclear. At the beginning of the story, the narrator says that he loved the old man but he hates his eye and h/she believes that the eye is evil. H/she confesses that the one and only reason for killing the old man is his eye: Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees Ã¢â¬â I made up my mind to take the life of the old manÃ¢â¬ . The narrator begins the story by trying to convince the reader that h/she is not insane. The fact that the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s eye is the only motivation to murder proves the narrator is mentally unstable. For seven nights precisely at midnight, the narrator enters the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s room to observe the eye. On the eighth night the narrator enters the room and the old man sat suddenly in his bed, crying out Ã¢â¬Å"whoÃ¢â¬â¢s there?Ã¢â¬ the narrator stood still for over an hour, as did the old man who did not lie back down. Then h/she opened the lantern slightly and the ray was on the eye only. This made the narrator go furious and he moved to the old man who shrieked once, he/she dragged him off his bed and killed him. The old manÃ¢â¬â¢s body was chopped and buried under the planks of the floor. The police came because of a shriek reported by a neighbor. H/she invited them and they sat chatting, after a while the narrator started hearing the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s heart beating from under the flooring. The heart beat grew louder and louder, finally h/she confesses of killing the old man. At the beginning of the story t...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Unification of Germany and Italy in the 19th century - Assignment Example During the year 1848 Europe was taken over by the democratic revolution and the German representatives in the unification were King Wilhem I (King of Prussian), who wanted to increase the strength of the army and elect a new Prime Minister. The second leader was Otto von Bismarck who was the Prime Minister, who had no room of idealism in his regime and was the leader of realism. During the year 1866 and 1877 there was a seven week war which provoked the Austria to call a war on Prussia, in which Prussia were successful and they took control over the northern Germany, which was followed by the Franco-Prussian War in which the Prussian army took over the northern France and took 80,000 French Prisoners. This war the final stages into the unification of the Germany and the southern region on accepted the Prussian as the leaders. There were many reasons that lead to World War I, few of the reasons were long pending and few of other arose near the war that made the decision more affirmati ve. Few of the long reason that forced the war was the Rise of Militarism, this was in result of the increase of use of power by the European in the late 18th Century. The Europe started to believe that the military powers were one of the most feasible and desirable reasons to resolve the increasing hostile and fragile political conditions in the world. Another long term reason that caused the World War I was The Arms Race, the excess use of military caused imbalance in the powers; this led to the innovation of technology with respect.